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Celtic Languages

The Celtic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. Celtic languages were spoken throughout much of Western Europe in Roman and pre-Roman times and survive today, only in the British Isles and Brittany of northwestern France.
There are two main types of surviving Celtic languages: Goidelic (or Gaelic) and Brythonic (or British). The Goidelic Celtic Languages include Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx (on the Isle of Man). The Brythonic languages include Welsh, Cornish (in Cornwall) and Breton (in Brittany).
Breton evolved from Cornish brought by settlers from Cornwall.
Scottish Gaelic and  Manx evolved from Irish, these languages only diverged into seperate languages about 500 years ago.
Amazingly Cornish and Manx became extint languages, but have been revived and are once again living languages! Cornish became extinct in the 1800's and Manx became extinct around 1975. I don't know if any other languages have even been revived into living languages like this anywhere else in the world.
The oldest of the Celtic Languages in form and history is Irish.
The name of the Irish Language is Gaeilge. The English name for the language is simply, 'Irish' 
Daeilge is only spoken as the primary language by a small minority of Irish people, it has a very long history. It is part of the Celtic branch of Indo-European languages, and it was spoken, not only in Ireland, but also Scotland and the Islae of Man long before the Roman and later, Germanic invasions. Gaeilge was the language from which Scottish Gaelic and Manx (which used to be spoken on the Isle of Man) evolved.
Gaeilge has the oldest vernacular literature of any language in Western Europe. During the dark ages, even thogh the rest of Europe was speaking their own languages, their writing was all in Latin, only the Irish wrote in their native tongue. This was mostly because the church held a monopoly on literacy. Even in Ireland, it was Christian Monks who wrote down the old tales and history of Ireland, along with much of the history of Europe.
Some scholars have said that the Irish monks saved European civilization and culture, being the only people to keep any records that weren't directly related to the church.
Ironically, we have these Irish Christian monls to thank for the only surviving written records of ancient Irish Mythology!